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马拉松跑基础知识——正确的跑步姿势

作者: 韦德体育 发布时间: 2019年10月15日 07:39:46
正确的跑步姿势Running Form & Style
by Stephen M. Pribut, DPM

马拉松跑的跑步姿势非常重要,因为你要一路坚持跑超过42公里,而不是4.2公里。这里总结了美国俄勒冈大学跑步教练Bill Bowerman在教学中总结的跑步姿势。实际上,在马拉松跑中,你应该站直了身子跑,不要往前倾或往后倒,也不要扭向一侧,下面一起听听Bill Bowerman是怎么说的。

Foot First: Where should you contact  脚的着地方式
有些人认为跑步时用前掌着地,也有人认为应该足跟着地。我们建议先以用中间部分接触地面。研究表明一名好的长距离跑者通常是以足中着地的。慢跑者以足中和脚跟着地,快跑者的着地点比慢跑者靠前。我们认为只有短跑选手和中短跑选手适合以前脚掌着地。可能有些人会例外,但是以足中着地对初中级跑步者是个好的方式。这样可以减少震动,缓解对小腿肌肉和足腱的压力,同时为下一个迈步做好准备。
Some say to run on the ball of your foot, others say contact the ground with the heel. We take a middle of the road approach. Studies have shown that good long distance runners usually contact with the midfoot. Slower runners contact between the midfoot and the heel, faster runners a bit further forward. We feel that only sprinters or short to middle distance runners should contact the ground with their forefoot or the ball of the foot. While there may be exceptions to the rule, this is a good way for most beginning and intermediate runners to start out. It allows for better shock absorption, less stress on the calf muscle and Achilles tendon, and better rolling forward onto the next stride. Your muscles then end up being used in a similar manner to how you walk, and this is the pattern of muscle firing and contact pattern they are accustomed to.

Hips & Head臀部和头部的姿势
这点比较难以想象:当你的脚着地时,你的臀部的位置在哪里?有些人建议,着地时你的脚应该在你的重心线的末端,也就是头臀脚三点成一线。头部保持正和直,目光看向正前方。转头的时候需要特别小心,通常是从脖子以上部分转动,避免身体的扭转,避免在行进时产生不稳定。
This part is hard to think about: Where are your hips when your foot hits the ground. Some people have suggested that your foot should be under the center of gravity of your body when it strikes the ground. A line from your head through your hips should end up at your foot. Keep the head fairly straight and look ahead. Turns to the side should be done carefully and usually mostly from the neck up to avoid twisting your body and making you unstable in your forward progression.

Arm Carriage手臂的姿势
这个姿势是在你没有使用慢跑婴儿推车,而是可以摆动双臂。首先,最重要的是不要僵直手臂,紧握拳头,完全弯曲肘部。保持放松。将手臂自然弯曲在腰线以上,不要太高或太低。两个手臂前后交替摆动,使腿部相应反方向运动。短跑选手在跑道上奔跑时手臂是完全前后摆动的,很多长距离跑步者略带弧度地摆动,但优秀的跑者不会把力气用在摆动胳膊上。换句话说,不要激烈地摆动手臂。
This is what you use when you haven't yet obtained a jogging baby stroller. Actually, it is where you allow your arms to swing. First, and most importantly, don't tense up and carry them stiffly with your hands balled up into a fist and your elbows completely bent. Relax. Carry your arms at your side somewhere between your waist and your chest. Make sure they are not too high or too low. One arm swings forward while the other one goes backwards. This occurs opposite to the foot and leg motion. Sprinters on the track move their arms in a straight forward-backward motion. Most longer distance runners use a slight arc as they swing their arms, but the better ones don't waste motion by moving too much from side-to-side. In other words, they don't swing their arms excessively in front of their body.

Knees膝盖

长距离跑步时膝盖不要抬得太高。只有短跑选手或我们在上坡时才需要太高膝盖。
The knees do not have to come up very high for long distance runners. Only sprinters or those of us chugging up a hill have to left our legs high.

Stride Length步长
很多长距离跑步者最大的问题就是步长过大。千万不要这样做,它将导致很多伤害,包括足腱,**髂胫束疼痛和髂腰肌疼痛。
(**这种疼痛并不是来自膝盖,而是来自韧带,是从臀部外侧往下一直到胫骨的一条韧带。这条韧带靠近膝盖的地方变窄,并在运膝盖弯曲时会与摩擦胫骨靠近膝盖的最上端。长期的摩擦会导致发炎。40%的跑步者会在开始跑步5年或更多时间后遭遇髂胫束综合症)。
One of the biggest problems of form in long distance running is overstriding. Make sure that you don't do this, it can lead to a host of problems including Achilles tendonitis, ITB pain, and iliopsoas muscle pain.

Breathing呼吸
当有些人建议你如何计算呼和吸的时间时,我们告诉你只要保持深度的和规则的呼吸。很多时候呼吸会自己调节,跑得快了,呼吸也就快了。确实如此,大多数跑步者用口呼吸或口鼻同时呼吸,仅用鼻子呼吸是不可能吸入足够多的氧气的。
While some like to tell you how to count your breathing in seconds both in and out, we will just tell you to keep breathing, deep and regular. In most cases your breathing will take care of itself, as you run faster, you'll breathe faster. And yes, most runners are mouth breathers or at least nose and mouth breathers. It would be impossible to take in adequate oxygen just breathing through your nose.

Uphills and Downhills上坡和下坡
在上坡时放慢速度,总的来说上坡时加快速度不是个好主意。加快摆动手臂,想象你在把自己往上推。加快步频,想象火车爬上山坡的情景,不断为自己鼓劲“我可以做到“。
Slow up a bit on the uphills. In general it is a bad idea to try going faster. Move your arms a bit more to help you imagine that you are cranking your way or pulling yourself up hill. Shorten your stride and chug on up. You can think of the little train that could and repeat "I think I can" on the way up a big hill.

谨慎下坡,放慢速度。下坡时膝盖的风险最大。你的四头肌起到制动的作用,如果重视不够将会使它过度“劳累“。在比赛时,可以身体略微前倾,冲下前去,但不是用在训练时。事实上,在有山丘的跑步训练中,很多人步行下坡作为恢复,为下一个上坡作准备。这是个休息的好办法,同时避免下坡时对膝盖产生的过多压力。
On the downhill, be careful. Go slow. The biggest risk, is to your knees. Your quadriceps do the bulk of the braking and be overworked without you being aware of it. If you are racing, then you may lean forward a bit and fly down the hill in a short race, but certainly be more careful in training. In fact many runners who use hills as part of their training will walk down the hill while recovering to run up the hill once more. This is a good way to rest and recover while avoiding the excessive knee stress that downhill running can cause.
 

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